Ok this has annoyed me for a few weeks and finally today I found a fix so I thought I would share it:
The Problem: After updating to Windows 10 no installed fonts would work in Photoshop CS6 and the type engine would fail to initialize.
1. close Photoshop CS6
2. open the folder C:\Users\[your username]\AppData\Local\Adobe\TypeSupport\CS6
3. Rename the 2 files located in that folder: AdobeFnt_CMaps.lst and AdobeFnt_OSFonts.lst (e.g. to AdobeFnt_CMaps.lst_backup and AdobeFnt_OSFonts.lst_backup)
4. launch PSE15 and check again the typo tool
Finally something that worked for me, thanks to Dominik Kietla for this solution.